–    Fully shielded lighting both in cities and rural areas. Redirecting light down only to where it is needed reduces the unnecessary spill of light and the required lamp wattage.

–    Use of low- or high-pressure sodium lighting with the orange component instead of the mercury lamps or metal halide discharge lamps with the enhanced blue / bluish component. The enhanced blue part of the spectrum is visible by more animal species and humans.

–    Reducing the levels of illumination of lights at night or turning them off when these are not needed (dimming).

–    Limitation on illumination of surfaces (outdoor advertising signs, billboards, facades, decorative lighting etc.).

–    Sensible spatial planning. Public lighting is not necessarily needed on each parking lot, in rural areas or on roads intended only for use of vehicles.

–    Laws, not voluntary reductions are needed. Self-regulation is likely to not be effective against the comercial interests, capital or ignorance.

Dark sky advisory group

Beauties of Nature

Beasts in Nature